The purpose of this article is to review the literature related to sham surgery in the field of orthopedics. In a clinical trial, sham surgery acts as a placebo. In some studies, arthroscopic procedures for treatment of knee osteoarthritis show no advantage over sham procedures. The importance, morality, and validity of the experi- ments have been continuously debated. The medical community is divided on the idea of surgical placebo studies, and just in 2020, numerous publications have come forward in support or opposi- tion to it. Some suggest that the sham studies have flawed design, while others claim it is ill-advised to invalidate the studies based on their limitations. Additional research is necessary to provide insight on whether sham study results can be trusted or if they are erroneous.