Application of Percutaneous Methylene Blue Marking in Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy for the Treatment of Completely Endogenic Renal Tumors: Three Case Reports

1. Abstract
1.1. Background: The difficulty of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy mainly depends on the size and location of the tumor. Complete endogenic renal tumors are very difficult to identify and remove during surgery. Therefore, localization assistance techniques are usually required during surgery.