Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: Ethical Issues and their Ramifications

1. Introduction
As the authors of this paper have been in academia and private practice for over 30 years, we have witnessed the gradual introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) that no doubt, will improve the health of our patients and health care services. Artificial intelligence is a special area of computer science where performance of tasks is accomplished that would normally require human intelligence [1].