Intraoperative Plain Balloon Angioplasty to Augment Creation of Radiocephalic Arteriovenous Fistula in Those with Small Cephalic Veins

1. Abstract
1.1. Introduction: The native small cephalic vein may be overlooked during radiocephalic Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF) creation due to concerns over failure rates particularly if the diameter is small. However, native access has benefits in patency and infection risk in selected patients over alternatives such as arteriovenous graft or tunneled hemodialysis catheter. The aim of this study was to review the outcomes of intraoperative Plain Balloon Angioplasty (PBA) in patients with small cephalic veins during AVF creation. We evaluated the maturation, primary and secondary patency rate of salvaged arteriovenous fistulae and identified risk factors related to patency rate.